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Article Published Feb. 24, 1999

Sandra Devlin EAST COAST KIN (Canada)
By: Sandra Devlin, Biography & Archived Articles

Journals & Diaries - Part III

This column is a continuation of a discussion of diaries and journals. (Part I)(Part II)

This the third in a series of columns about extant historic Maritime journals and diaries. ( Part I, Part II ).

Again, before I proceed to detail some of the examples, I want to stay in the present for a moment to express a concern about the loss of valuable documents of our present age.

When death visits our families -- parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts and God forbid, our own children -- we are caught in a whirlwind of emotions coupled with an urgent need to settle the final affairs. Far from our minds is the realization that in calmer moments ahead we will want the reminders which during the first stages of grief are too painful to sift through one by one.

I would encourage all to give some forethought to these inevitable eventualities, with the thought of preserving the loved one’s special place in your genealogy. Plan to keep everything until you can sort through them with a less hurried, less emotional sense of priority.

Save those shoe boxes full of papers, don’t throw away that trunk. Save the recipes torn from magazines and newspapers. Save the hastily scrawled lists and address books. Even the old Christmas cards! Some often have notes about family, some have photos enclosed. Don’t forget to check the books for clippings and photos before selling them cheaply at a yard sale.

If you are not the survivor designated to tend to these matters, ask respectfully for the opportunity to sort through what others might consider junk.

As if to underscore the eagerness with which many family researchers view this subject, while I was in the process of writing this column a message was posted to one of the many Internet lists I monitor (in this case, the Eastern Townships of Quebec). The writer referred to a few shoe boxes of yellowed newspaper clippings found while cleaning out her recently departed mother-in-law’s belonging. Within minutes a thread of messages appeared on the list encouraging (very strongly in some cases) the writer to save, donate or organize the clippings in a scrapbook. One person even offered to organize them herself, “just please don’t throw them out!”

In my opinion, there is no nicer memorial act to a departed loved one than to organize their photos, papers, clippings and trinkets into an order which chronicles their life.

The ordinary lives are the ones too often forgotten by history. Even living memory has a tendency to fade without the assistance of objects to trigger the senses.

In short, always remember that we are the guardians of the genealogy and the history of this age.

Now, on to the ages past preserved in diaries and journals.

Simeon Perkins, a Planter merchant in Nova Scotia, wrote private journals between 1766 and 1812, the year he died. Perkins migrated from Connecticut in May 1762 and at his death he was known as the father of Liverpool on Nova Scotia’s south shore. Historical novelist Thomas Raddall based one of his best known works, His Majesty’s Yankees on the Perkins diaries, of which there are five volumes. Some have been published: The Diary of Simeon Perkins 1780-1789 edited by D. C. Harvey, published Toronto 1958 and The Diary of Simeon Perkins 1804-1812, edited by C. B Fergusson, published in Toronto 1979.

Another Planter diary written by Rev. John Seccombe was published in Report of the Public Archives of Nova Scotia in Halifax, 1959.

For a scholarly analysis read Gwendolyn Davies’ contribution Persona in Planter Journals in They Planted Well, edited by Margaret Conrad, number one in the Planters Studies Series (Acadiensis Press, Fredericton, N.B 1988).

Gubbins Journals are often cited in history books which describe the life, times and environment of the common pioneer of New Brunswick. Travelling the province on an inspection tour (1811-1813), Gubbins wrote daily detailed accounts of his journeys, noting the people, lifestyles, food and accommodations. Often mentioned, too, are the pesky mosquitoes.

Any temptation to romanticise the pioneer life and the pioneers themselves is dispelled by reading the Gubbins entry of July 16, 1811: “I inspected the 1st Battalion of the Westmorland County militia commanded by Major Gay an active and intelligent person. Ruben Steves of this corps was ordered to be fined by his captain according to law on the 11 of last month, for gross misbehaviour in the ranks. This he resisted, and he endeavoured to stab several individuals who helped to take him into custody. In the presence of Justice of the Peace Sinton a few days afterwards wrote to Justice Kieler a paper purporting to be a copy of Steve’s commitment, but in fact representing the man’s crime to be only a trifling misdemanor and adding a strong recommendation that he should be set at liberty, which accordingly took place upon his giving security for his good manner that the laws are enforced in these out of the way parts, and for the like motive I shall notice any facts of the same tendency that may come within my observation.

“In the afternoon I crossed the Memramcoke. The road I travelled ran nearly parrallel with the Petitcodiac, the marsh lands in the neighbourhood of which are very rich and extensive...

“On my way, wishing to be well informed of the circumstance relative to Steves’s release I called at the country goal where I learnt another instance of laxity in the jurisprudence of this province. A young woman named Sarah Blue of Westcock had sworn a rape against I. Smith of Sackville. The man was apprehended but let out on bail. He found means to get the evidence against him put out of the way when the trial was to have taken place, after which she returned to her usual residence, but was taken up and retained in the felons appartment to secure her evidence, whilst the accused was permitted to remain at large on bail...

“Many other proofs of the wants of moral were related to me: but it is not to be wondered at.”

Annie T. Johnston’s married life was frightening and abusive and her diaries held at the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John tell the story. The three journals cover a period from 1869 to 1881. Several pages are missing from the 1881 journal, but we learn why from her entry of July 10: “He (her husband Waltham) took this book out of my room unknown to me and tore out all my diary. His conscience made him so. He knew how there was a memo of many of his evil deeds, his threats to murder me...”

From sinners to saint, no account of the Maritimes would be complete without reference to the evangelicals and the acknowledged patriarch of the Baptist Church, Elder Joseph Crandall ( c1772-1858). He wrote his memoirs when elderly. Copies of these memoirs are held at the recently established Crandall room at the Atlantic Baptist University, Moncton.

Crandall’s memoirs are largely self serving and religion-based, but provide an invaluable insight into the religious fervour and the revivalist meetings of the era complete with hell, fire and brimstone.

One such meeting described by Crandall illustrates: “ There (in Pollet River, N.B. about 1799) the cloud of darkness that had for so long obscured my mind disappeared and the Lord so blessed my speaking that a number of the people were brought to cry to the Lord for mercy and the meetings continued for several days. Oh it was wonderful to see groups of people at the midnight hour returning home from the meetings with their torchlights, and making the wilderness echo with the praises of God.”

At the Atlantic School of Theology library in Halifax I am told there is a memoir of another man of the cloth, Rev. John Sproutt. The collection includes detailed genealogy from early times, as well as a daily diary, some letters and sermons. Memoir, 1780-1869

Rev. Sproutt (1780- 1869) was a Presbyterian minister who served in many Nova Scotia charges, including Windsor, Sheet Harbour and Musquodoboit and travelled widely throughout the province.

One entry: Feb. 24, 1822 reads: “Visited Cheverie, attended a funeral, and preached. While thus employed the flooring of the house on which we stood gave way, and precipitated the whole company to the bottom of a deep cellar. No lives were lost.“

High society lived comparatively carefree lives in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in 1794 according to the jottings of Lady Jane Hunter, wife of the Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty’s Forces in North America. Visiting over the Christmas season, Lady Jane reported everybody “flying about in sleighs in the morning and going to Gregorys and dances in the evenings.” Gregorys she explained were “stupid card parties where you are crammed with tea, coffee, cakes, and then in an hour or two, cold turkey, ham and a profusion of tarts, pies and sweet meats; punch, wine, port, liqueurs and all sort of drink.”

More memoirs. From time to time at his leisure, Lieut. Col. William T. Baird of Fredericton, N.B. wrote down highlights of his life “for perusal by my children, friends or others who, in later years, might have a desire to learn something of pioneer life in New Brunswick.” By 1890, his jottings had grown enough to warrant publishing a book entitled Seventy Years of New Brunswick Life.

While not really a journal or diary, this rambling chronicle is worth its weight in anecdotes and perspective on everything from moose hunting and odd characters to trapping a horse thief and personal views on Confederation.

Yet another memoir of interest is The Master’s Wife by Sir Andrew Macphail (1864-1938) which chronicle his strict Presbyterian upbringing in Orwell, Prince Edward Island. Macphail began adult life teaching school and went on to be a noted medical doctor, scholar, war hero and journalist. Living many of his later years in Montreal, he was a personal confidant of Rudyard Kipling.

Another school teacher was John Little, whose diary covering several months when he was teaching on the North West Miramichi in 1875 is housed at the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John.

The diary is almost entirely his observations of people and places in Red Bank and along the North West Miramichi.

More diaries and journals exist than space warrants in this series. Following is a listing of others, although not by any means intended to be all encompassing:

At the Mount Allison University Archives, Sackville, N.B.:
    Life of Mrs. M. Bradley, memoirs of Mary Coy Morris Bradley (1849)
At the University of New Brunswick Archives, Fredericton, N.B.:
    Memoirs of an Octogenarian by Laurastine D’Avery Bailey, manuscript dated 1926.
    Photocopy of dairy written by Violet E. Goldsmith, native of Carroll’s Crossing, P.E.I.
At the Provincial Archives, Fredericton, N.B.:
    Original journals of Anne Campbell 1825-1843.
    Photocopies of three diary manuscripts of Alvarette Estabrooks written between 1889-1893.
    Small notebook written by Maggie J. Doak Flett in 1902.
    Tiny notebook written by Fanny L. Fox in 1925.
At the New Brunswick Museum, Ganong manuscript collection, Saint John, N.B.:
    Three manuscript diaries of Sophia Mary Carman (1873,1883, 1884)
    Diary written by Ida Harding 1877-1880.
    Diary of Col. Henry Nase (typescript)
At the Cumberland County Museum, Amherst, N.S.:
    George Christie diary (1869-1894)
At the Public Archives of Nova Scotia, Halifax:
    Robert Hales’ Journal of an Expedition to Nova Scotia 1731.
At the Moncton Museum, Moncton, N.B.:
    Typescript of diary written by Ann Eliza Rogers Gallacher Moore from 1852 intermittently until 1896.
No Place Like Home - Diaries and Letters of Nova Scotia Women 1771-1938; Conrad, Laidlaw and Smyth (1988).

The Diary of Deacon Elihu Woodworth 1835-1836 published by Wolfville (N.S.) Historical Society, 1972.

Benjamin Marston’s diary (source of information about early Shelburne, N.S.) published Collections of the New Brunswick Historical Society, No. 8.

Feminist Voices, Cartographies of Silence, an annotated bibliography of English Language Diaries and Reminiscences of New Brunswick Women 1783-1980 by Joanne Ritchie (1997).

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