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ENGLISH & WELSH ROOTS - Welsh Resources
Article posted: December 23, 1999
By: Fawne Stratford-Devai   Biography & Archived Articles


This issue of English and Welsh Roots is devoted to high-lighting Welsh resources. All too often, those in search of their Welsh roots are directed only to English resources and records. While many Welsh records are found at the Public Record Office (PRO) with other English records, Welsh records and customs are very different to their English counterparts. This article is not designed to discuss issues and methods for undertaking Welsh research. Instead it is provided to outline a wide variety of Welsh resources: online, published or LDS.

ONLINE RESOURCES CHURCH RECORDS: PLACE/GEOGRAPHIC BASED WELSH LINKS:
    ~ANGLESEY~
    From 1974 to 1996 Anglesey was part of the county of Gwynedd.

    ~BRECONSHIRE (BRECKNOCKSHIRE)~
    The counties of Breconshire, Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire became the county of Powys in 1974.


      Breconshire (Brecknockshire) GenUKI: http://www.rapidagent.co.uk/genuki/BRE/

      Breconshire - GenWeb: http://www.rootsweb.com/~wlsbre/index.html

      Brecknockshire - Archives - Powys County Archives Office: http://archives.powys.gov.uk/default.htm Powys County Archives Office, County Hall, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, Great Britain LD1 5LG (tel: 01597 826088) Opened as recently as 1991, the Powys County Archives Office is located in Llandrindod Wells, and serves as the official repository for the records of the modern county of Powys (first established in 1974) and the three former counties of Brecon, Montgomery and Radnor.

      Brecknockshire - Powys Digital History Project: http://multiweb.ruralwales.net/~history/ The Powys Digital History Project has placed archival images on-line with transcripts and commentary. Explore history through original sources.

      Brecknockshire - Societies - POWYS Family History Society: http://www.rootsweb.com/~wlspfhs/ POWYS FHS covers the pre 1974 counties of Montgomeryshire, Radnorshire and Breconshire. The society has Groups at Brecon, Montgomery and Radnor, and has a shared interest in the London Branch.


    ~CAERNARFONSHIRE (CAERNARVONSHIRE)~
    Caernarfonshire became part of the county of Gwynedd in 1974.


      Caernarfonshire GenUKI: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/CAE/

      Caernarfonshire GenWeb: http://www.rootsweb.com/~wlscae/index.html

      Caernarfonshire - Archives: Caernarfon Area Record Office: http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0053.htm Caernarfon Record Office, Gwynedd Archives and Museums Service, Education and Culture Department, County Offices, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 1SH. Telephone: 01286 679087/679095. Fax: 01286 679637. Records relating to the geographic area of the former historic county of Caernarfon, including local government archives; public and official archives (courts of law, hospitals, etc.); private archives including those of families, estates, industry, and trade; and archives of ecclesiastical parishes.

      Caernarfonshire - Society - Gwynedd Family History Society: http://www.gwynedd.fsbusiness.co.uk/ The Society covers the pre 1974 counties of Anglesey, Caernarfonshire, parts of Denbighshire and most of Merionethshire. The society has branches at Llandudno, Caernarfon, Pwllheli, Llangefni and Dolgellau, and has a shared interest in the London Branch.

      Caernarfonshire - Map of Ecclesiastical Parishes: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/CAE/CAE_Pars.html


    ~CARDIGANSHIRE~
    Cardiganshire is a bilingual County in West Wales. Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire became part of the administrative county of Dyfed in 1974. Cardiganshire was reinstated as a county under the name of Ceredigion in 1996.


      Cardiganshire [Ceredigion]- GenUKI: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/CGN/

      Cardiganshire/Ceredigion - Archives: http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0009.htm. Ceredigion Archives County Offices, Marine Terrace, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion. SY23 2DE. Telephone: 01970 633697/633698. Records relating to the geographic area of the former historic county of Cardigan, including local government archives; public and official archives (courts of law, hospitals, etc.); and private archives including those of families, estates, industry, and trade.

      Cardiganshire - Societies - Cardiganshire Family History Society: http://www.heaton.celtic.co.uk/cgnfhs/

      Cardiganshire - Societies - Dyfed Family History Society (CYMDEITHAS HANES TEULUOEDD DYFED): http://www.westwales.co.uk/dfhs/dfhs.htm For genealogy in Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire

      Cardiganshire - Churches, Chapels, and Repositories (indexes, etc.) Created and maintained by the Dyfed Family History Society: http://www.westwales.co.uk/dfhs/cgn/cgnindex.htm

      Cardiganshire - Registration Districts by Brett Langston: http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/blangston/genuki/reg/cgn.htm

      Cardiganshire in 1821 - Map: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/CGN/CGNMap1821.html

      ~CARMARTHENSHIRE [SIR CAERFYRDDIN]~
      Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire became part of the administrative county of Dyfed in 1974. Carmarthenshire was re-established as a county in 1996.

      ~DENBIGHSHIRE~
      The county of Clwyd was created in 1974 from the old counties of Flintshire, a large part of Denbighshire and part of Merionethshire. The county of Clwyd was dissolved in 1996 and instead became four unitary authorities - Denbighshire, Flintshire, Conwy County Borough and Wrexham County Borough. It is important to realise that the boundaries of the "new" Denbighshire and Flintshire are considerably different from those of the historic counties of the same names.


        Denbighshire - GenUKI: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/DEN/

        Denbighshire - GenWeb: http://www.rootsweb.com/~wlsden/index.html

        Denbighshire - Archives - Denbighshire Record Office (Archifdy Sir Ddinbych): http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0011.htm Denbighshire Record Office, 46 Clwyd Street, Ruthin Denbighshire, LL15 1HP. Telephone: 01824 708250 (enquiries); 01824 708251 (County Archivist) Fax: 01824 708258. Records relating to the geographic area of the former historic county of Denbigh, including local government archives; public and official archives (courts of law, hospitals, etc.); private archives including those of families, estates, industry, and trade; and archives of ecclesiastical parishes. Records relating to the geographic area of the present Denbighshire from 1996 onwards. The official archives and deposited collections comprise many thousands of items relating to the historic county of Denbighshire and neighbouring areas on a wide variety of subjects. They include local government records from the 1640s onwards; Church in Wales parish records, some from the seventeenth century; nonconformist chapel records; archives of many important local estates and families, some dating from medieval times; and collections of business and industrial records.

        Denbighshire - Archives - Flintshire Record Office (Archifdy Sir y Fflint) - (some Denbighshire records): http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0032.htm

        Denbighshire - Archives - Wrexham Archives Service (Gwasanaeth Archifau Wrecsam) - (some Denbighshire records): http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0038.htm. Wrexham Archives Service, Wrexham Museum, Regent Street, Wrexham. LL11 1RB. Telephone: 01978 358916. Fax: 01978 353882 Web: http://www.wrexham.gov.uk/english/Culture^Heritage/Archives.htm. Archives relating to the area covered by Wrexham County Borough Council already held by the existing record offices at Ruthin, Denbighshire, and Hawarden, Flintshire, will remain there at present. The archives service does hold minor archival collections mainly material acquired since its formation in 1996. It is keen to preserve records of historic interest to the area including manuscripts, maps, plans and photographs.

        Denbighshire - Archives - Conwy Archives Service (Gwasanaeth Archifau Conwy) - (some Denbighshire records): http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0035.htm. Conwy Archives Service, Llandudno Library, Mostyn Street, Llandudno, Conwy. Telephone: 01492 860101 (likely to change) Fax: 01492 876826. Web: http://www.conwy.gov.uk/English/2council/Ec1.html (under County Secretary: Library, Information and Archives Services). Documents and photographs reflecting the history of the county borough of Conwy, its predecessor authorities [the Aberconwy District of old Caernarfonshire + the Colwyn District of old Denbighshire], and its people.

        Denbighshire - Societies - Clwyd Family History Society: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/FLN/ClwydFHS/index.html Despite the local government re-organisation, the Committee of Clwyd Family History Society has decided that the Society will continue to "cover" the area of North-East Wales which comprised the now defunct county of Clwyd - i.e. the ancient counties of Flintshire, Denbighshire and part of Merionethshire.

        Denbighshire - Societies - Gwynedd Family History Society: http://www.gwynedd.fsbusiness.co.uk/ The Society covers the pre 1974 counties of Anglesey, Caernarfonshire, parts of Denbighshire and most of Merionethshire. The society has branches at Llandudno, Caernarfon, Pwllheli, Llangefni and Dolgellau, and has a shared interest in the London Branch.

        Denbighshire - County Council: http://www.denbighshire.gov.uk/

        Denbighshire - Conwy County Borough Council: http://www.conwy.gov.uk/

        Denbighshire - Council - Wrexham County Borough Council: http://www.wrexham.gov.uk/

        Denbighshire - "historic" Registration Districts: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/DEN/RegDistricts/index.html


      ~FLINTSHIRE~
      Flintshire was one of the original six counties created by Edward I in 1284. The county of Clwyd was created in 1974 from the old counties of Flintshire, a large part of Denbighshire and part of Merionethshire. The county of Clwyd was dissolved in 1996 and instead became four unitary authorities - Denbighshire, Flintshire, Conwy County Borough and Wrexham County Borough. It is important to realise that the boundaries of the "new" Denbighshire and Flintshire are considerably different from those of the historic counties of the same names.


        Flintshire - GenUKI: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/FLN/

        Flintshire - GenWeb: http://www.rootsweb.com/~wlsflnsh/index.html

        Flintshire - Lineages Flintshire Resources: http://www.lineages.com/UK/WLS/FLN.html

        Flintshire - Archives - Flintshire Record Office (Archifdy Sir y Fflint): http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0032.htm Flintshire Record Office, The Old Rectory, Hawarden Flintshire, CH5 3NR. Telephone: 01244 532364. Fax: 01244 538344. Records relating to the geographic area of the former historic county of Flint and north-east Wales, including local government archives; public and official archives (courts of law, hospitals, etc.); private archives including those of families, estates, industry, and trade; and archives of ecclesiastical parishes.

        Flintshire - Societies - Clwyd Family History Society: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/FLN/ClwydFHS/index.html Despite local government re-organisation, the Committee of Clwyd Family History Society has decided that the Society will continue to "cover" the area of North-East Wales which comprised the now defunct county of Clwyd - i.e. the ancient counties of Flintshire, Denbighshire and part of Merionethshire.

        Flintshire - County Council:http://www.flintshire.gov.uk/


      ~GLAMORGAN~
      In 1974, Glamorgan was divided into the counties of Mid Glamorgan, South Glamorgan, and West Glamorgan. However, in 1996, Mid Glamorgan and South Glamorgan were reunited as the county of Glamorgan but West Glamorgan remained a separate county.


        Glamorgan - GenUKI: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/GLA/

        Glamorgan - Archives - Glamorgan Record Office: http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0026.htm Glamorgan Record Office, Gamorgan Building, King Edward VII Avenue, County Hall, Cathays Park Cardiff. CF1 3NE. Telephone: 01222 780282. Fax: 01222 780284. The Glamorgan Record Office has recently produced three new leaflets which give general information for visitors (including opening hours and a map showing the Office's location) and describe the Office's Family History Service and its Education Service for schools, teachers and students. The leaflets are full-colour and bilingual and are available free of charge from the Record Office. Note: The Record Office has also reprinted one of its best-selling posters which advertises passages aboard steamships from Cardiff to New York in 1875. The poster can be purchased from the Record Office for £2.00 (£3.75 by post within the United Kingdom. Overseas prices on application). Collections centre on historic records relating to the geographic area of the former Mid Glamorgan and South Glamorgan County Councils, and ecclesiastical parish records of the diocese of Llandaff.

        Glamorgan - Archives - West Glamorgan Archive Service: http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0019.htm West Glamorgan Archive Service, County Hall, Oystermouth Road, Swansea. SA1 3SN. Telephone: 01792 636589. Fax: 01792 637130. Web: http://www.swansea.gov.uk/culture/laarindex.htm. The West Glamorgan Archive Service also operates Access Points at Neath Library and Port Talbot Library. Records relating to the geographic area of the former county of West Glamorgan, including local government archives; public and official archives (courts of law, hospitals, etc.); private archives including those of families, estates, industry, and trade; and archives of ecclesiastical parishes and non-conformist chapels.

        Glamorgan - Family History Society (Cymdeithas Morgannwg Hanes Teuluol): http://website.lineone.net/~glamfhsoc/

        Glamorgan - Cardiff County Council: http://www.cardiff.gov.uk/

        Glamorgan - Parish Map: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/GLA/GLAImgMap.html

        Glamorgan - Baptists: history of the Baptists in the county of Glamorgan, Wales. http://www.pb.org/pbdocs/chhist5.html#Succession_in_Wales

        Glamorgan - Travel - Vale of Glamorgan: http://www.valeofglamorgan.co.uk/


      ~MERIONETHSHIRE~
      A portion of Merionethshire became part of the county of Clwyd in 1974. However, most of Merioinethshire became part of the county of Gwynedd. The county of Clwyd was dissolved in 1996 and instead became four unitary authorities - Denbighshire, Flintshire, Conwy County Borough and Wrexham County Borough.


        Merionethshire - GenUKI: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/MER/

        Merionethshire - GenWeb: http://www.rootsweb.com/~wlsmer/

        Merionethshire - Archives - Merioneth Record Office: http://www.llgc.org.uk/cac/cac0030.htm. Merioneth Record Office, Cae Penarlâg, Dolgellau, Gwynedd. LL40 2YB. Telephone: 01341 422341 ext. 4442/4444. Fax: 01341 424505. Records relating to the geographic area of the former historic county of Merioneth, including local government archives; public and official archives (courts of law, hospitals, etc.); private archives including those of families, estates, industry, and trade; and archives of ecclesiastical parishes .

        Merionethshire - Ecclesiastical Parishes Map: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/MER/MER_Pars.html

        Merionethshire - Society - Gwynedd Family History Society: http://www.gwynedd.fsbusiness.co.uk/ The Society covers the pre 1974 counties of Anglesey, Caernarfonshire, parts of Denbighshire and most of Merionethshire. The society has branches at Llandudno, Caernarfon, Pwllheli, Llangefni and Dolgellau, and has a shared interest in the London Branch.

        Merionethshire - Council - Gwynedd Council: http://www.gwynedd.gov.uk/


      ~MONMOUTHSHIRE~
      In 1974, Monmouthshire became part of the county of Gwent. In 1996, the Monmouth Council and Gwent County Council were replaced by the Monmouthshire County Council which covered only the eastern part of the old historic county. New unitary authorities were created - Blaenau Gwent, Caerphilly, Monmouthshire, Newport and Torfaen.

      ~MONTGOMERYSHIRE~
      The counties of Breconshire, Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire became the county of Powys in 1974.


        Montgomeryshire - GenUKI: http://www.rapidagent.co.uk/genuki/MGY/

        Montgomeryshire - Archives - Powys County Archives Office: http://archives.powys.gov.uk/default.htm Powys County Archives Office, County Hall, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, Great Britain LD1 5LG (tel: 01597 826088) Opened as recently as 1991, the Powys County Archives Office is located in Llandrindod Wells, and serves as the official repository for the records of the modern county of Powys (first established in 1974) and the three former counties of Brecon, Montgomery and Radnor.

        Montgomeryshire - Powys Digital History Project: http://multiweb.ruralwales.net/~history/ The Powys Digital History Project has placed archival images on-line with transcripts and commentary. Explore history through original sources.

        Montgomeryshire - Socieities - Montgomeryshire Genealogical Society (Cymdeithas Achyddol Maldwyn): http://home.freeuk.net/montgensoc/index.htm

        Montgomeryshire - Societies - POWYS Family History Society: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/michaelmacsorley/powys1.htm POWYS FHS covers the pre 1974 counties of Montgomeryshire, Radnorshire and Breconshire. The society has Groups at Brecon, Montgomery and Radnor, and has a shared interest in the London Branch.

        Montgomeryshire - Council - Powys County Council: http://www.powys.gov.uk/


      ~PEMBROKESHIRE~
      Pembrokeshire, Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire became part of the administrative county of Dyfed in 1974. Pembrokeshire was reinstated as a county in 1996.

      ~RADNORSHIRE~
      In 1974, three old counties of Wales, Radnorshire, Montgomeryshire, Breckonshire were combined to form one administrative county (shire), Powys.
    OTHER RESOURCES: WELSH LANGUAGE:
      Welsh Studies Institute in North America, Inc. (Sefydliad Astudiaethau Cymreig yng Ngogledd America). Cymdeithas Madog, the Welsh Studies Institute of North America, Inc., is a tax-exempt, non-profit organization dedicated to helping North Americans learn, use and enjoy the Welsh language. It takes its name from Madog ab Owain Gwynedd, a Welsh prince who sailed (according to legend) to America in the 12th century. That makes him a fitting symbol of the cultural and linguistic links which Cymdeithas Madog maintains between Wales and the New World. http://www.madog.org/

      History and Status of the Welsh Language: http://users.comlab.ox.ac.uk/geraint.jones/about.welsh/

      Online English-Welsh, Welsh-English Dictionary: http://www.cs.brown.edu/fun/welsh/LexiconForms.html

      A Dictionary of the Welsh Language: http://www.aber.ac.uk/~gpcwww/ A project begun in 1921 by the Board of Celtic Studies of the University of Wales to produce the first standard historical Welsh dictionary. The Dictionary of the Welsh Language has been published in parts since 1950, of which 52 have appeared to date (a--silicat).

      Manorial Documents Register - WALES: http://www.hmc.gov.uk/mdr/wales.htm The Manorial Documents Register (MDR) for Wales was computerised by means of a collaborative project with the National Library of Wales.
    PUBLISHED RESOURCES:
      Welsh Family History: A Guide to Research
      Edited by John Rowlands & Sheila Rowland.
      Probably the most comprehensive book on Welsh family history, expertly written and covering a wide range of subjects relating to Welsh research. As Welsh records and customs are different to English this book is invaluable. This book is not a step by step guide for complete beginners. Instead it is aimed at those with some knowledge of research generally who are either experienceing difficulties with their Welsh lines or who are, perhaps, coming to Welsh research for the first time. The editorial group had two main aims in mind when steering this book to publication. First, to give readers an insight into the social, cultural, religious and linguistic background of Wales and the ways in which this can effect hamily history research. Secondly, it wanted to dispel the widely held belief that these aspects pose insurmountable barriers to researching Welsh ancestors. 2nd edition 1998, 322 pages
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/2185030.htm

      Second Stages in Researching Welsh Ancestry
      Edited by John and Sheila Rowlands
      This is the second of John & Sheila Rowlands titles on tracing Welsh Ancestry, the first Welsh Family History is an excellent guide to how to trace in Welsh Records. This is a guide to more advanced research and as such is an invaluable book to anyone with Welsh roots. Subjects covered include: Religion and Society in Nineteenth Century Wales; Catholics in Wales; Indicators of Nonconformity; Urban Growth and Industrialisation in Wales; Reading old documents, strategies for success; Sources for Surname Studies; Homes of Surnames in Wales; Introduction to Maps of Wales for family historians; Writing and estate and family history; the national Monuments Record of Wales; The Welsh in the professions, as well as several other essays and case studies which are fascinating. This book is a must for those with an interest in Welsh History, or who require further guidance to researching their Welsh family history. 1st edition 1999, 348 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/020012.htm

      Researching Your Family History in Wales
      by Jean Istance & E E Cann.
      This book is basically a small guide to the record offices, libraries and other repositories in Wales . 1st edition 1996, 88 pages
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #06021219


      Nonconformist Registers of Wales.
      Edited by Dafydd Ifans.
      The first part of this book gives an introduction to nonconformity , and the records of nonconformity in Wales. The second part includes a listing of nonconformist records available as of 1994. Provides dates of coverage and whereabouts of records, as well as examples of the documents you can find. Hardback. 1994, 196 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #0602964


      Catholic Parishes in England, Wales and Scotland;
      An Atlas. By Michael Gandy.
      This small booklet is an Atlas of Catholic parishes. A most useful guide to help researchers understand the unique Catholic parish boundaries in England, Wales and Scotland and therefore to find where records may be. 1993, 32 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #0602509


      Catholic Family History; A Bibliography for Wales.
      By Michael Gandy.
      A small but important bibliography of Welsh Catholic sources. 1996, 60 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #06021204


      Catholic Missions and Registers 1700-1880 - Volume 3 - Wales and the West of England. By Michael Gandy
      Introduction to Catholic registers and lists of available records for Wales, Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Somersetshire, Wiltshire. 1993, 46 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #0602541


      The Surnames of Wales.
      by John Rowlands & Sheila Rowland.
      On the basis that surnames in Wales are so different from elsewhere this is an interesting book which discusses the orgins and distribution of Welsh Surnames. Some are dealt with in more detail than others - includes maps showing surname distributions. 1st edition 1996, 218 pages
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/2185032.htm

      Local Newspapers 1750-1920, England & Wales Channel Islands; Isle of Man.
      By J.S.W Gibson.
      This Guide is designed to tell family historians what newspaper have been published in any specific place and where they can be consulted. No differentiation is made, therefore, between the original paper copies and microfilms of originals elsewhere. 64 pp., Booklet, 5.5" x 8.5"
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/2182186.htm

      Coroners' Records in England and Wales. By J.S.W. Gibson, and Colin Rogers. This little guidebook is actually the first effort ever made to itemize all coroners' records in England and Wales now in public repositories, and it has made a relatively impossible task relatively simple. Within each county, listed in order of their pre-1974 boundary changes, the records are arranged in three groups: Medieval (generally pre-sixteenth century), Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries, and Modern (generally twentieth century). Within these groups the records are listed by repository. All details were either supplied by archivists or extracted from various manuscript or published calendars. Also included in the work is a glossary of terms and a bibliography. 48 pp., 1997.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/2182196.htm

      Pigot's North Wales 1828-9 & South Wales 1830 Trade Directory.
      This CD includes the facsimile copies of the actual trade directory. Although it is not easily searchable, the data contained in the directory is very useful to have on CD
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #0604620w


      Pigot's Commercial Directory for 1835.
      Facsimile copy of the original directory, covering the counties of Herefordshire, Leicestershire, Monmouthshire, Rutlandshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Worcestershire, North Wales, South Wales. 1996, 532 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #06028477q


      Welsh Words and Phrases by Glamorgan Family History Society. Glossary of Welsh words - very useful for understanding monumental inscriptions and parish register entries.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #06021620


      Poor Law Union Records - 3 - South West England,the Marches and Wales.
      by Jeremy Gibson & Colin Rogers.
      Guide ot the records of the poor law unions, with maps of the union boundaries. 1st edition 1993, 72 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #0602320


      Poor Law Union Records - 4 - Gazetteer of England and Wales. By Jeremy Gibson and Frederick A Youngs Jr.
      Gazetteer of Poor Law Unions and the places contained in each. A very useful finding aid for anyone trying to understand the boundaries covered by the Poor Law Unions. 2nd edition 1997, 76 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #0602321


      Adjoining Parishes Of Glamorgam, South Wales
      by Mary Kearns Trace.
      This brief reference booklet outlines all the adjoining parishes for each parish in the county. Also includes references to adjoining parishes in neighbouring counties.12 pp., Soft Cover Booklet, 5.5" x 8.5", 1997
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/110202.htm

      Tracing Your Ancestors in the Public Record Office.
      By Amanda Bevan & Andrea Duncan.
      This is the guide you need to help find your way through the census and the service records, the wills and the law suits, the court rolls and the hearth taxes, and all the other records where traces of the lives of our individual forebears can still be found. Many Welsh records are held by the PRO. 266 pp., Soft Cover Book, 6" x 9.5", 1997.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/334069.htm

      The Making of Wales
      By John Davies.
      This books is an illustrated look at man's effect on the landscape of Wales, from prehistoric times to the modern day. Lots of colour photo's and diagrams of towns growth and housing. 1st paperback edition 1999, 160 pages.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com:
      Call 1-800-361-5168 to order Catalog #06028436


      In Search of the Red Dragon.
      by Carol Bennett
      In this book the Author describes Welsh immigration and settlements, discusses the survival of the Welsh language and cultural institutions in Canada and tells the story of a number of famous Canadian of Welsh extraction. 270 pgs / index & bibliography /paperback.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/251004.htm

      Strangers From A Secret Land, Voyages of the Brig Albion and the Founding of the First Welsh Settlements in Canada. by Peter Thomas
      Two Welsh settlements struggled to establish themselves in early 19th Century Canada. New Cambria, N.S. and Cardigan, N.B. were marginal communities and within a few decades most of the people had disbursed and the history of these communities had faded. More than a century later in a cemetery at what was once Cardigan Settlement, the author took the first steps to recover the lost history of Canada's Welsh immigrants. 344 pgs/indexed/B & W Photos/6" x 9"/softcover.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/213015.htm

      Cary's Map of England and WALES with Part of Scotland, 1794 - CDROM . Maps on which are carefully laid down, all the Direct and Principal Cross Roads, the Cross of the Rivers and Navigable Canals, Cities, Market and Borough towns, Parishes and most considerable Hamlets, Parks, Forest, etc.
      Available from GlobalGenealogy.com: http://globalgenealogy.com/602cd2.htm

      PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE (PRO) LEAFLETS:

      LDS FAMILY HISTORY LIBRARY CATALOG©
      While many Welsh records are only available directly from the PRO in England or the National Library of Wales and county records offices, a great many Welsh records have been microfilmed by the LDS and are available in their main Family History Library Catalog. When searching the Family History Library Catalogue, begin with WALES -- [suitable topic] (e.g. WALES - CHURCH RECORDS). The small sample of entries from the online LDS Family History Library Catalogue are listed below to illustrate but a few of the many resources available to researchers on loan to a local Family History Center of the LDS.

      In the 1930s, the National Library of Wales sent a questionnaire to all parishes asking for details of surviving records. This survey is on film at the Family History Library and can be borrowed to a local Family History Center of the LDS: Parish Registers and Civil Records of the Parishes of the Welsh Diocese included in the Returns Relating To Ecclesiastic.... (FHL film 104,175-8). These surveys are organized by diocese then alphabetically by parish.

      The LDS Family History Library has the following marriage indexes for Wales:


        Index, 1813-1837. This index covers marriages for the counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen, and Pembroke (FHL book 942.9 K22d).

        Index, 1754-1812. This index is for Monmouthshire (FHL film 1472252 ITEM 56).

        Index, 1754-1837. This index covers the county of Montgomeryshire (FHL book 942.94 K22g; film 1472334).

        Index, 1500-1754. This index is for the county of Montgomeryshire (FHL book 942.94 K22hz; film 1657352).

        Index, 1813-1837. This index covers the county of Anglesey (FHL film 1472376).

        Index, 1813-1837. This index is for the county of Caernarvon in three parts: Dwyfor (FHL film 1565720), Arfon (FHL film 1472376), and Aberconwy (FHL film 1,565,276).


      WALES - CHURCH RECORDS: Society of Friends. Monthly Meeting of the South Division of Wales -Births, marriages and burials, 1655-1771. Includes marriages, 1665-1759; births, 1655-1733; burials, 1661-1771. Microfilm of original records at the London Public Record Office, London. RG6-1343 [FHL BRITISH Film # 1419547 Item 3].

      The Family History Library has microfilm copies of Welsh bishop's transcripts. To find the film numbers by county and parish, use: Bishop's Transcripts. Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1989. (FHL book Reg 942.9 V27b; film 599276).

      WALES - CHURCH RECORDS: Marriage bonds and allegations, 1616-1900 - Church in Wales. Diocese of St. Asaph. Microfilm of original records at the National Library, Aberystwyth. [31 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.1616-1717=FHL BRITISH Film # 104740 microfilms numbered sequentially following first reel].

      WALES - GENEALOGY: Collection of genealogical data relating to Welsh families. Microfilm of manuscript collection in possession of National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth. Contains genealogical notes (pedigrees, birth dates, etc.), copies of letters, newspaper clippings (including short biographies of Welsh Unitarian ministers) and misc. notes on Unitarian Church related matters, etc. National Library of Wales manuscript no.: 14172 . [FHL BRITISH Film # 104354 Item 2].

      WALES, [COUNTY] - PROBATE RECORDS - INDEXES: A register listing pre-1858 Welsh probate records available at the Family history Library is— Handlist of Probate Records Pertaining to the Diocese of St. David's, St. Asaph, Bangor, and Llandaff, Wales and of the Peculiar and Exempt Court of Hawarden, Flint County. Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1970. (FHL book REG 942.9 S2w; microfiche # 6054481.)
    Whether you are searching for Welsh records online, in published sources or in other electronic products, please remember there is absolutely NO substitute for verifying the information in the original records. All indexes, databases and other publications should be used as pointers to original records which you must access at some point to ensure the accuracy of your research.

    Please remember, your research is the legacy you leave to others - verify all information you find!




    BREAKING NEWS: - 1901 CENSUS UPDATE

    News from the PRO's 1901 census mailing list.
      Dear 1901 Census Enquirer [forwarded by Brian Wheeler]

      In the past six months we have received much feedback on the 1901 Project. Before we announced the signing of the contract in November we were unable to give full answers to all enquiries. We are now able to do so in the majority of cases and I am writing to you because you have in the past emailed us on some aspect of the 1901 service.

      The following information update has been compiled in response to the many queries and comments we have received. This update has also been posted to selected newsgroups.

      We intend to set up a regular mailing list to keep you up-to-date with the Project. If you do not wish to be on this list please let us know at 1901census@pro.gov.uk.

      Yours sincerely

      Margaret Brennand
      1901 Census Project Communications Co-ordinator

      1901 Census Update

      Since announcing the name of the contractor (DERA) and the outline charging scheme the PRO has received many comments and questions. The project is still at a relatively early stage and we welcome all such contributions as an aid to getting it right and satisfying the future users of the service. Many of the comments we have received have been positive:

      "...the digitisation project is an initiative that has my wholehearted support and will see the PRO as a world leader in providing archival retrieval services, and reducing the load on its existing facilities. I wish you at the PRO, the contractor and subcontractor every success for this venture."

      However, there are some understandable concerns, which we do need to address. More detailed information is available on our web site http://www.pro.gov.uk/census/default.htm but the main concerns are dealt with below.

      Please keep your comments coming in (1901Census@pro.gov.uk). We hold regular meetings at the FRC, have a presence at some of the major family history fairs around the country and intend holding regional consultation meetings in the New Year.

      THE CONCERNS

      "Providing an online service will reduce access to the records"

      We will be providing access at a PRO site (probably Kew) to the 1901 Census on fiche, with the standard finding aids. This will be available free at the point of use. But we have a duty to serve all citizens and for many a visit to the PRO is either not practicable or not affordable, or both. Delivery of the records on-line at a reasonable charge allows us to - make a service available throughout the country to people in their own homes or at a local Internet access point such as their local library. This means that the costs of a visit to London can be saved, the service can be accessed at any time to suit the lifestyle of the individual, and the physical difficulties and time taken to travel and visit a remote centre are avoided. For people outside the London area, in particular, an on-line service can be a much more attractive option. We realise that viewing the national sets of earlier censuses may still require a visit to the FRC but at least this a step in the right direction. Our view is that family and local history is of much wider interest than current levels of participation suggest and that on-line service is the way to make family history a mass pursuit. This can only be to the benefit of genealogy.

      We are particularly interested in developing educational services on-line because our current on-site facilities and location are not amenable to school use. We aim to use the 1901 project as the basis for educational services - you can see some examples of the PRO's online educational services related to other records on our web site ( http\\www.pro.gov.uk. ). At Kew we also welcome school parties but for those of you familiar with the FRC at its busiest, imagine adding a school party! The online option is really the only way we provide an education service in relation to the Census. Provision of the on-line service at the FRC will give users much more rapid results and so allow more researchers to pass through the Centre each day.

      This should ease the problem of congestion. It will also permit users to print direct from the image they have found instead of moving with their film to a separate Reader Printer. Overall, we will be offering an enhanced level of service. It is true that the fiche will not be available at the FRC but it will still be available at a PRO site. The online service at the FRC offers a considerable enhancement in service quality, and the online service in general can reach far more people than the FRC ever could. The enhancement includes provision of an index for the first time on release, the direct link to the image and the facility to print at home.

      "The online service will cost too much"

      We believe that the outline charges are reasonable (a free index, around 50p per transcript or for an enhanced index search, and around 80p per image of a complete page; 5 minimum charge) and compare well with the costs of travelling to use the FRC. (Full details of the outline charging scheme are on the web site. The charges are based on recovering the costs of the project, and the strategy is to maximise use by low charges as the best means to recover costs. Reduced rates will be available to heavy users of the service. In addition, we have - planned for the provision of institutional accounts so that organisations such as libraries (and e.g. family history societies) can obtain appropriate terms. How much such organisations then charge users will be a matter for them.

      "What about people without Internet access?"

      We are very much aware that some people do not currently have ready Internet access. This is less of a problem within the family history community - up to 45% of FRC users have some kind of access, according to our surveys - but it is still an issue. Firstly, we will be providing around 50 terminals at the FRC. Secondly, we will be supporting Internet access at local libraries and record offices. Provision of Internet access at locations such as libraries is a key element in government policy and we expect it to be much more common in 2002. Thirdly, we expect that personal and public Internet access will be much more widespread by 2002 and will probably have become even more user-friendly. Telephone charges for Internet use may also have become cheaper. In the longer term there will probably be easy access via e.g. TV sets.

      "What about people who cannot use computers?"

      This is a more substantial problem than the issue of Internet access. Currently, around 25% of FRC users may not use computers (although this does not mean that they are not capable of doing so). We expect the proportion to reduce and we also expect the 1901 system to be user friendly. Again, libraries and other agencies may well be increasing the availability of computer training for all citizens, not just the young and those in work or education.

      Also, microform technology is itself quite user-unfriendly and requires specialist equipment to use it. In particular, some manual dexterity is required, the quality of image on the viewer can be poor and there is often no facility to enlarge. Printing requires very expensive equipment. PCs are more common and more versatile than microform equipment and facilitate easy printing.

      However, the issue of computer literacy does need to be addressed by the PRO as with other service organisations, and we intend to take action well before 2002. We have already proposed to the Federation of Family History Societies that we work with them in this area.

      "Are DERA and their sub-contractors competent to provide this service?"

      DERA was selected as the contractor only after long and vigorous open competition with other suppliers. This competition was based on value for money including, crucially, quality issues. The PRO has employed independent experts to assess the various contractors involved in the project and we are confident that DERA and its contractors are capable of delivering on all aspects of the project.

      DERA is one of the world's leading technological research organisations and has considerable experience in the use of information technology. Its contractors have all got good track records in their fields.

      "The transcription will not be accurate"

      The transcription process will be tightly controlled at a number of levels. The transcription will be undertaken by Enterprise Supply Services (ESS) as a sub-contractor for DERA. ESS is an agency of the Prison Service, which runs a number of commercial businesses including data processing. These businesses are run and managed to fully professional commercial standards. They are fully ISO9000 quality approved. Some Census street indexes have in the past been created by a forerunner of ESS for the PRO and their quality has not been questioned. In the case of the transcription of the 1901 census only fully trained operators who have demonstrated consistent accuracy will be used. No transcript can be 100% accurate but ESS will aim to get as close to that as possible. All entries will be double keyed - i.e. literally typed in twice by different operators, and one operator will not know who the other operator is; software will be used to check any inconsistencies between the two versions and trained personnel will seek to resolve the inconsistencies. The transcript will then be checked by ESS.

      The work by ESS will be checked again by DERA using a team led by a professional quality engineer (who is also an active family historian). It will then be checked by the PRO's own Quality Assessment team led by expert staff.

      The PRO team, including its expert advisers, has formed a very good opinion of the capabilities of Enterprise Supply Services to deliver a high quality transcription. We have every confidence in the staff involved in managing the project for ESS, and given the high status of the work we are certain that the operators concerned will be willing and capable of delivering a good result. We are also confident that our quality assurance procedures will ensure a very high standard of transcription.

      "What happens if there is an error in the transcription and I waste money as a result?"

      If an error in transcription leads a user to look at pages in error then the costs will be refunded. One of the strengths of the on-line service will be the facility to make corrections in case of errors in transcription.

      "What happens if there are problems with the Internet or with the computers of the 1901 service and I waste money as a result?"

      The charges are not by time so variations in the speed of Internet access will not affect how much you pay. If there are difficulties with access due to the 1901 service's own computers and people lose their credits then there will be refund procedures. If there is a general problem with the Internet which somehow leads to a loss of credits then there will also be refund procedures.

      "Why isn't the PRO doing it like the 1881 Census project?"

      The 1881 census project was an admirable piece of work but given the time required and costs involved it is no surprise that there has not been a similar '1891' project. If 1891 was not viable in that form then we had no reason to believe that 1901 would be. We have also made a step-change from 1881 in making the image of the document available, linked to the index. This removes the need for a two-stage research process and makes original research possible for the first time world-wide. It also means that anyone with a PC will be able to store and print the image as and when they want, provided they have an appropriate printer.

      It was important to launch the online service immediately in 2002 because our current projections show that the FRC will be approaching saturation point in terms of visitor numbers by that date, and simply could not cope with the extra demands of the 1901 census unless we launch an on-line service as well.

      We are in talks with the GSU to put the 1881 index online.

      "Why isn't the PRO proposing to sell CD-Roms of 1901?"

      CD-ROM is fine for indexes and we may sell a CD version of the 1901 index. However, to put the whole 1901 service (with the images) onto CD-ROM would currently require around 1000 discs and we do not see that as a viable option for anyone.

      "This is just an attempt of the PRO/DERA to profiteer"

      DERA is undertaking this as a commercial concern and will, quite properly, seek to recover their costs including a reasonable return. They will have taken a substantial risk in putting up the capital for the project. Beyond a certain point, the DERA share of any nett income from the service will reduce in order to avoid excess profits. The PRO's aim is to cover costs although it may not do so given the investment needed to get the project moving, to underwrite some of the costs and to manage the contract. If the service is so successful that there is income beyond the costs of 1901 then that part of the surplus which comes to PRO will be invested in digitising other censuses.

      "What if I want to view a lot of images in one sequence e.g. a village?"

      This is an issue, which is linked to certain types of research. We are aware of it and are seeking a solution with DERA.

      "How can I use the service if I don't have a credit card?"

      We have insisted that institutional accounts be available. This means that organisations offering Internet access can, if they choose, accept cash or other forms of payment from users. We will be accepting cash at the FRC and DERA are considering a pre-payment system for the online service which will accept postal orders and cheques.

      "Will the service be available outside the UK?"

      The Internet service will be accessible world-wide

      "Why will you only be selling fiche to County Record Offices and Local History Libraries?"

      We intend to offer fiche of local areas for sale to local archives and relevant libraries. We expect many of them to take up the online service instead.

      Contrary to popular belief the PRO does not make money on the sale of fiche and the costs of production and sale of further copies must be considered, especially given the costs incurred in developing the online service.

      After the Census is released and the online service goes live in January 2002 then this position will be reviewed in the light of experience.


    A copy of a message posted by Peter Christian, Editor, "Computers in Genealogy", Society of Genealogists, 14 Charterhouse Buildings, Goswell Road, London EC1M 7BA CiG Web Page:





    EXTRA BITS:


    source=Victoria & Albert Decorate the Christmas Tree, Illustration from Godey's Lady's Book, December 1860 CHRISTMAS IN WALES - There are many customs which are remnants of early Christian and even earlier Roman occupation. The 'Calennig' is an apple on three twig legs, stuck with almonds or cloves or other spiky things such as thorns. It has a sprig of evergreen at the top, and is offered to householders by carolling children, in return for a small gift of cakes, money or, more often, sweets. Learn how to celebrate a traditional Welsh Christmas: http://people.delphi.com/mariachristm/how2welsh.html

    THE CHRISTMAS ARCHIVES: Everything you need to know about Christmas is here or will be here soon!
    http://people.delphi.com/mariachristm/index.html

    THE GREAT BRITISH CHRISTMAS:
    http://people.delphi.com/mariachristm/gbx.html

    A THUMB-NAIL HISTORY OF CHRISTMAS IN ENGLAND:
    http://people.delphi.com/mariachristm/gbc.html

    DIGGING AROUND THE ROOTS: A Brief Look At the Beginnings of British Christmas:
    http://people.delphi.com/mariachristm/dig.html

    Christmas Accounts from Historical Documents:
    http://people.delphi.com/mariachristm/historical.html

    CHRISTMAS LINKS:
    http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/1465/xmaslinks.html

    CHRISTMAS ‘ROUND THE WORLD WIDE WEB:
    http://www.auburn.edu/~vestmon/christmas.html

    A VICTORIAN CHRISTMAS:
    http://www.victoriana.com/christmas/

    One Christmas was so much like another, in those years around the sea-town corner now and out of all sound except the distant speaking of the voices I sometimes hear a moment before sleep, that I can never remember whether it snowed for six days and six nights when I was twelve or whether it snowed for twelve days and twelve nights when I was six.

    Exerpt from A Child's Christmas in Wales, by Dylan Thomas source: http://www.bfsmedia.com/MAS/Dylan/Christmas.html




    About Fawne Stratford-Devai
    Fawne Stratford-Devai's work on Land Records and early Ontario records is well known in the genealogy community. A published author of several Canadian and UK research books, she has also contributed articles to the Ontario Genealogical Society's newsletter "Families" as well as writing for the online family history newsletter the "Global Gazette". Biography


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