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A Chronology of Ontario for Family Historians
Article updated: 22 September 2010
By: Rick Roberts, Biography & Archived Articles
1774... The Quebec Act (1774) included what is now southern and central Ontario south of the Arctic watershed into the Province of Quebec. What is now Northern Ontario north of the Arctic watershed was part of Rupert's Land, a territory granted by the British Crown to the Hudson Bay Company.
1763.... The Treaty of Paris recorded the conditions under which France ceded control of it's colonies in North America to England. Source - . France, effectively lost control of it's North American holdings when the English took Montreal three years earlier in 1760
1760....Britian forces the surrender of New France with the taking of Montreal in 1760.
1759....The British take Niagara and Toronto. The French burned the fort at Toronto leaving the Britsh with a smoldering pile of ashes for their prize.
1759....Quebec city taken by the British.
1758.... British take Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario)
1754....The Seven Years War begins.
1749-50.... French erect the first fort at present day Toronto, and Niagara as part of a line of forts running as far west as present day central Ohio.
1749.... French Canadian farmers establish the first permanent European agricultural settlement at present-day Windsor, Ontario
1740.... The French build trading posts beyond the western border of present day Ontario, into the praries.
1730-35.. French build a string of posts through present day northern Ontario, as far west as the Lake of The Woods (near present day Manitobe border).
1721.... The French build a small fur trading post on the site of present day Toronto.
1713....Peace is negotiated between England and France to end the war started in 1702. The French recognise the English claim to lands surrounding Hudson's Bay.
1702....War broke out between England and France however very little conflict between the two adversaries in New France (present day Ontario & Quebec).
1702....The French build a fort at present day Detroit, Michigan.
1701.... Detroit is founded by Cadillac.
1689....Intense fighting resumes between the French and Five Nations Iroquois and continued for 12 years until a peace was negotiated in 1701.
1678....French establish a trading post at Niagara>
1673.... The French establish the first permanent European settlement on the Great Lakes, F Frontenac at Cataraqui, the present day site of Kingston, Ontario.
1670 Charles II, King of England, grants the Hudson's Bay Company control over what is now Northern Ontario, then known then as Rupert's Land
1672.... Hudson's Bay Company built a trading post at Moose Factory.
1667....The French and Iroquois settle their differences and begin a strained twenty two year period of peace.
1659.... French explorers Radisson and Groseilliers are the first recorded Europeans to travel west of Lake Superior.
1650.... The Nuetral Indian Tribe of western Ontario is completely slaughtered by the Iroqois Tribe.... no survivors. There is an account of the event penned by a Jesuit Priest who travelled the area. His account was (roughly) that the Nuetral Indians were georaphically located between the Hurons and the Iroquois ( a fairly even match in military strenghth) who were constantly a war with each other. If either side was to attack the other, they had to cross the lands inhabited by the Nuetrals. The Nuetrals allowed both sides free passage on the conditiont that they not cause a disturbance on the lands of the Nuetrals. If either side were to cause injury to the Nuetrals the Nuetrals pledged to join with the other side, providing a swing in the balance of power which would likely cause destruction of the offending tribe. This worked well until the Hurons, weakened by diseases brought by the Jesuits, were soundly defeated by the Iroquois. The Iroquois then turned on the Nuetrals and drove them into extinction by the end of 1650.
1648 - 49...The Iroquois begin a concentrated attack on Huron villages and Frenchmen in Huronia, completely destroying the Huron tribe and removing it's influence from Sounthern Ontario. Their first target was the village of St. Joseph in Huronia. Thus began a nineteen year struggle between the French and Iroquois
1630s...European diseases and epidemics begin to rage in the Huron settlements.
1620....Etienne Brule travels as far west as Lake Superior.
1615.... The Jesuits set up the first Missions across Huronia.
1615.... Samuel de Champlain reaches Lake Huron. Source - book: IN SEARCH OF YOUR CANADIAN ROOTS
1613.... Samuel de Champlain travelled up the Ottawa River, then Chats Lake, where Arnprior and Braeside, Sand Point and Castleford were to be founded more than two centuries later, and then he went through the system of rivers and lakes which bisect the modern townships of Ross and Westmeath. His route which took him up into the Pontiac, is now referred to as the Champlain Trail. Source - book: Source - book: RENFREW COUNTY PEOPLE AND PLACES
1611.... Henry Hudson sailed into the bay that now bears his name. Source - book:
1610.... Etienne Brule explored southern Ontario in 1610 - 1612. Source - book: IN SEARCH OF YOUR CANADIAN ROOTS
900..... The Late Woodland Period begins (900 - 1650).
1 ....... The Middle Woodland Period begins (1 A.D. - 900).
1000.... The Early Woodland Period begins (1000 B.C. - 0 A.D.). It was during the Early Woodland period that ceramics were first used in southern Ontario. The archaelogical record indicates that mortuary practices became more elaborate. It was at this time that two primary Indian civilizations emerged.... the Algonkians (Algonquin) to the north and the Iroquois to the south.
7500.... The Archaic Period begins (7500-1000 B.C.). The Archaic evolved from the earlier Paleo Indian base in response to changing enviromental conditions.
9000.... The Paleo-Indian Period begins ( 9000 - 7500 B.C.). The first hunting groups to enter southern Ontario after the retreat of the ice sheet are known as Paleo-Indians.
Canadian Genealogy & History Resources from Global Genealogy: