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Smith's 1846 Canadian
Gazetteer
Geographical Names in the Gazetteer
Preface
Early History
Climate. . .
Divisions & Extent of the Upper Province
Bathurst District
Dalhousie District
Eastern District
Johnstown District
Midland District
Ottawa District
SMITH'S 1846 CANADIAN GAZETTEER :
EASTERN DISTRICT
Consists of the Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. This is an old settled district, which returns four members to the House of Assembly -- three for the counties and one for the town of Cornwall; rather more than its share, considering its relative importance, compared with some of the more western districts. The Eastern District is bounded on the south by the River St. Lawrence; and the west of the district is watered by the Petite Nation River and its tributaries; it is pretty well settled; and Cornwall, the district town, is pleasantly situated; but much of the land is poor and cold. The district advances but slowly. 2,150 acres of Crown lands are open for sale in the district, at 8s. currency per acre; to purchase any of which application must be made to the Crown Lands Agent at Cornwall. Population in 1842 : 29,893; since when it has probably increased one-tenth. The following abstract from the assessment rolls will show the rate of increase and improvement in the district :
Date. No of
Acres
Cultivated.
MILLS

Grist. Saw.
Milch
Cows.
Oxen,
4 years
old, and
upwards.
Horned
Cattle
from 2 to 4
years old.
Amount of
Ratable
Property.
1842 89,237 20 46 12,291 642 3,519 £366,956
1843 89,240 21 53 13,241 662 3,268 £366,404
1845 90,872 17 50 13,269 710 2,871 £372,604

Government and District Officers in the Eastern District:
OFFICE NAMES RESIDENCE
Judge of District Court G.S. Jarvis Cornwall
Sheriff A. McMartin Do.
Treasurer A. McLean Do.
Clerk of Peace and District Clerk James Pringle Do.
Judge of Surrogate Court Robert Cline
Registrar of County of Stormont John McLean Kingston
Registrar of County of Dundas A. McDonell Mariatown
Registrar of County of Glengarry A. Fraser
Inspector of Licenses P. VanKoughnet Cornwall
Crown Lands Agent Samuel Hart Do.
Collectors of Customs G.C. Wood
A. McDonell
John Cameron
Do.
Mariatown
Charlottenburg
Clerk of District Court, and Deputy
Clerk of Crown
George Anderson Cornwall
Warden Hon. A. Fraser
Number of Common Schools in operation in the Eastern District : Matilda, 18; Mountain, 12; Cornwall (town), six; Cornwall (township), 21; Charlottenburg, 22; Finch, six; Kenyon, ten; Lancaster, 14; Lochiel, 14; Osnabruck, 21; Roxborough, three; Williamsburg, 14; Winchester, six. Total : 167.

CHARLESVILLE.
A small Village in the township of Osnabruck, situated on the St. Lawrence, 18 miles from Cornwall. It contains about 120 inhabitants, and one tavern.

CHARLOTTENBURG.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Lancaster; on the north-west by Kenyon; on the south-west by the reserve of the St. Regis Indians; and on the south and south-east by the St. Lawrence. In Charlottenburg 73,784 acres are taken up; 17,415 of which are under cultivation. The River Aux Raisins runs across the centre of the township from west to east. The village of Martintown is sutuated in the west of the township, and the village of Williamstown in about its centre. The soil of Charlottenburg varies in quality; on the banks of the river it is generally poor, with pine timber. There are some good farms in the township. This is the best settled township in the Eastern District. There are four grist and six saw mills in the township. Population : 4,975; the principal part of whom are Scotch. Ratable property in the township : £63,795.

COOKSVILLE.
A small Village in the north-west of the township of Williamsburg, about six miles from the St. Lawrence; contains about 100 inhabitants, two stores, three taverns.

CORNWALL.
The District Town of the Eastern District : in the township of Cornwall, and county of Stormont, pleasantly situated on the River St. Lawrence. The town is well laid out, and has some good streets, with many excellent stone and brick houses. The town was incorporated in the year 1834, and returns a member to the House of Assembly. The Cornwall Canal passes the town, lying between the town and the River St. Lawrence. This place was formerly called by the French inhabitants "Point Malin," on account of the difficulty they experienced in ascending that portion of the river with their "Bateaux." There is a handsome stone jail and court-house. Churches and chapels four, viz., Episcopal, Catholic, Presbyterian and Methodist. A newspaper is published here, the "Cornwall Observer." Population of Cornwall : about 1,600. Post-office : post every day.
           The following government and district offices are kept in Cornwall: Judge of District Court, Sheriff, Clerk of Peace, Treasurer, Inspector of Licenses, Collector of Customs, Crown Lands Agent, District Clerk, Clerk of District Court, Deputy Clerk of Crown.
           Professions and Trades : Three physicians and surgeons, eight lawyers, eight stores, one foundry, two tanneries, eight taverns, one druggist, one bookseller, one auctioneer, one printer, four bakers, six groceries, two tin-smiths, four blacksmiths, five tailors, two watchmakers, two butchers, three coopers, six joiners and carpenters, one hatter, two painters, one ladies' school, two bank agencies,"Commercial," and "Montreal." Principal Taverns, "Chesley's," and "Pitt's."

CORNWALL.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the reserve of the St. Regis Indians; on the north-west by the township of Roxborough, on the south-west by Osnabruck; and on the south by the River St. Lawrence. In Cornwall 53,583 acres are taken up, 13,624 of which are under cultivation. This is an old and well-settled township. The town of Cornwall is sutuated in its south-east corner, and the villages of Moulinette, and Milleroche, and the settlement of St. Andrews, are also in the township. There are four grist and four saw mills in the township. Population of Cornwall : 3,907, who are principally English, Irish, and Scotch. Ratable propery in the township : £65,632.

DICKENSON'S LANDING.
A Village in the township of Osnabruck, situated at the head of the Cornwall Canal, eleven miles west from Cornwall. It contains about 200 inhabitants, a Catholic church, six stores, and five taverns.

DUNDAS.
A County in the Eastern District : comprises the townships of Mountain, Matilda, Winchester, and Williamsburg. It returns a member to the House of Assembly.

FINCH.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Roxborough; on the north-west by Cambridge and Russell; on the south-west by Winchester; and on the south-east by Osnabruck. In Finch 15,410 acres are taken up, 2,305 of which are under cultivation. The Petit Nation River runs through the north of the township, from south to north. There is considerable pine on its banks, much of which is floated down the Ottawa. There are one grist and three saw-mills in the township. 150 acres of crown lands are open for sale in Finch, at 8s. c'y per acre. Population : 756; who are principally Scotch, and have a Presbyterian church. Ratable property in the township : £9,504.

GLENGARY.
A County in the Eastern District : comprises the townships of Charlottenburg, Kenyon, Lochiel, Lancaster, and the Indian reserve. It returns a member to the House of Assembly.

KENYON.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Lochiel; on the north-west by Caledonia; on the south-west by the reserve of the St. Regis Indians; and on the south-east by Charlottenburgh. In Kenyon, 43,166 acres are taken up, 3,837 of which are under cultivation. The land in Kenyon varies in quality. Timber : pine, intermixed with hardwood. There are two grist mills in the township. Population in 1842 : 2,536, who are principally Irish Catholics and Scotch. The latter have a Presbyterian Church in the township. Ratable property in the township : £20,812.

LANCASTER.
A Township in the Eastern District, the most south-easterly township in Canada West : is bounded on the north-east by Canada East or Lower Canada; on the north-west by the township of Lochiel; on the south-west by Charlottenburgh; and on the south-east by Lake St. Francis, a portion of the River St. Lawrence. In Lancaster 49,273 acres are taken up, 10,094 of which are under cultivation. This is an old and well-settled township, containing some good farms. It is well watered by numerous streams running across it from west to east, and all of which flow into the St. Lawrence. Timber : a mixture of pine and hardwood. The village of Dalhousie is situated in the north-east corner of the township; and the village of Lancaster in the south-west corner. There are two grist and seven saw mills in the township. Population in 1842 : 3,171. Ratable property in the township : £38,627.

LOCHIEL.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Hawkesbury East; on the north-west by Hawkesbury West; on the south-west by Kenyon; and on the south-east by Lancaster, and a portion of Lower Canada. In Lochiel 53,886 acres are taken up, 8,366 of which are under cultivation. The settlement of Alexandria, or Priest's Mills, is situated in the south-west corner of the township, on the River de L'Isle. It contains a Catholic church: there are also Presbyterian and Baptist churches in the township, in a settlement called Breadalbane. 600 acres of Crown lands are open for sale in Lochiel, at 8s. currency per acre. There are two grist and three saw mills in the township. Population in 1842 : 2,047. Ratable property in the townshp : £32,445.

MARIATOWN.
A Village in the township of Williamsburgh : situated on the St. Lawrence; contains about 100 inhabitants, one store, one tavern, and post office, post every day.

MARTINTOWN.
A Village in the west of the township of Charlottenburgh : situated on the River aux Rasins, 13 miles from Cornwall. It contains about 200 inhabitants, and one Presbyterian Church. Professions and Trades : One grist and saw mill, seven stores, one tavern, four asheries, one saddler, one waggon maker, three blacksmiths, three tailors, three shoemakers.

MATILDA.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Williamsburgh; on the north-west by Mountain; on the south-west by Edwardsburgh; and on the south-east by the St. Lawrence. In Matilda 37,765 acres are taken up, 6,518 of which are under cultivation. There is a small village in the township, called Matilda, situated on the St. Lawrence. 200 acres of Crown lands are open for sale in Matilda, at 8s. currency per acre. There is a Methodist church in the township, and three saw mills. Population in 1842 : 2,435. Ratable property in the township : £29,064.

MILLE ROCHES.
A Village in the township of Cornwall, five miles from the town of Cornwall. It is situated between the River St. Lawrence and the Cornwall canal. It was once flourishing, but the formation of the Cornwall Canal has cut it off from the surrounding country. A quarry of splendid black limestone, resembling black marble, and which takes a beautiful polish, is situated close to the village. Mille Roches contains a grist and saw mill, carding machine and fulling mill, and two stores. Post Office : post every day.

MOULINETTE.
A Village in the township of Cornwall : situated on the St. Lawrence, seven miles from Cornwall. It contains about 100 inhabitants. Churches and chapels two; viz., Episcopal and Methodist. Professions and Trades : One grist and saw mill, one brewery, carding machine, foundry, one store, one tavern, one cabinet maker, one blacksmith.

MOUNTAIN.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Winchester; on the north-west by Osgoode; on the south-west by South Gower; and on the south-east by Matilda. In Mountain 25,362 acres are taken up, 6,269 of which are under cultivation. The Petite Nation River runs through the west and south of the township, leaving it at its eastern corner. Mountain is pretty well settled, and contains some good land. Timber : a mixture of pine and hardwood. 200 acres of Crown lands are open for sale in the township, at 8s. currency per acre. There is an Episcopal church in the township, and one grist and four saw mills. Population in 1842 : 1,316. Ratable property in the township : £18,275.

OSNABRUCK.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Cornwall; on the north-west by Finch; on the south-west by Williamsburgh; and on the south-east by the St. Lawrence. In Osnabruck 45,163 acres are taken up, 12,116 of which are under cultivation. This township is well watered by numerous small streams running through it. It is well settled, and contains good farms. There is a large quantity of pine in the township. The villages of Charlesville, Santa Cruz, and Dickenson's Landing are in the township, and all situated on the St. Lawrence; the latter at the head of the Cornwall Canal. 150 acres of Crown lands are open for sale in Osnabruck, at 8s. currency, per acre. There are two grist and ten saw mills in the township. Population in 1842 : 3,623. Ratable property in the township : £45,235.

ROXBOROUGH.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the reserve of the St. Regis Indians; on the north-west by Plantagenet and a small portion of Cambridge; on the south-west by Finch; and on the south-east by Cornwall. In Roxborough 20,118 acres are taken up, 2,411 of which are under cultivation. This township is pretty well settled, and contains good land. Timber : a mixture of pine and hardwood. 350 acres of Crown lands are open for sale in Roxborough, at 8s. currency per acre. There are one grist and two saw mills in the township. Population in 1842 : 1,107; who are principally Scotch and Irish. Ratable property in the township : £9,992.

SANTA CRUZ.
A small Settlement in the township of Osnabruck : situated on the St. Lawrence, 15 miles from Cornwall. It contains two churches -- Episcopal and Presbyterian; and one tavern.

STORMONT.
A County in the Eastern District : it comprises the townships of Cornwall, Finch, Osnabruck, Roxborough, and, except for the purpose of representation in the Legislative Assembly, the town of Cornwall. It returns a member to the House of Assembly.

ST. ANDREWS. (See CORNWALL)

ST. LAWRENCE. (The principal River in Canada)

It receives the waters of the great lakes from Lake Ontario and conveys them to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It is nearly half a mile wide at its commencement, and 90 miles wide at its mouth. The name was originally given to the Gulf, and afterwards extended to the River, by Cartier, an early French navigator, in 1534, in honour of a saint in the Romish calendar. Soon after its commencement, it expands into the "Lake of the Thousand Isles;" a portion of the river, the scenery of which is most beautiful and romantic, being studded with islands, some of which are many acres in extent, and others only a few feet square, and most of which are covered with red cedar; some are only just above the surface of the water, and others are abrupt and craggy rocks, jutting up perpendicularly to the height of 30 or 40 feet. Sometimes you pass through a narrow channel, between rocks, where, at a short distance, you would imagine there was scarcely room for a boat to pass. In passing through the lake, during the last summer, in company with a German who had travelled over Germany, Switzerland, and France, he declared that in point of natural beauty, the scenery of the Rhine was not to be compared to it. He acknowleged that the addition of old castles and pictureque ruins, added charms to the scenery of the Rhine, that were wanting in that of the St. Lawrence; but that in true natural beauty, it was far from equal to the Lake of the Thousand Isles.
           There are several rapids in the river, some of which it is difficult, and others impossible for sailing vessels or other craft to ascend; and steamboats and vessels, conveying goods between Kingston and Montreal, have been in the habit of descending the rapids, and returning by the Ottawa River, being towed by steamboats through the Rideau Canal. The principal of these rapids, are the Galoppes Rapids, Point Iroquois Rapids, Rapide Plat Rapids, Farren's Point Rapids, the Long Sault Rapids, The Coteau Rapids, The Cedars Rapids, the Cascades Rapids, and the Lachine Rapids The Galoppes Rapids are situated at about six miles below Prescott. The current in the river is very strong, varying from six to ten miles per hour. The first class steam passage vessels can overcome these rapids, as those at Point Iroquois, Rapid Plat, and Farren's Point in the natural state of the river; but to enable trade vessels generally to ascend the Galoppes, improvements are in progress, which consist of one guard lock, one lock with a lift of between seven and eight feet, and a lateral cut or canal two miles in length. The Point Iroquois Rapids occur at about 12 miles below Prescott; to enable vessels to ascend them, a canal has been constructed about three miles in length, with a lock having a lift of about six feet. This work is not quite finished, but will be completed during the present year. The Rapide Plat Rapids are about 19 miles below Prescott, and to overcome them, a canal has been made about four miles in length, with a guard lock, and a lift lock having about eleven and a half feet rise. The Farren's Point Rapids are about 33 miles below Prescott. The improvements here consist of a canal about one mile in length, with a lock having about four feet lift. The next rapids are those of the Long Sault; these are serious, and may indeed be called insurmountable obstacles to ascending the river; they have been avoided by the construction of the Cornwall Canal, which is about 12 miles in length, and commences at the village of Dickenson's Landing, eleven miles above the town of Cornwall. The next work connected with the St. Lawrence is the Beauharnois Canal, the object of which is to open a communication from Lake St. Francis to Lake St. Louis, avoiding all the rapids of the Coteau, the Cedars, and the Cascades, which occur in the portion of the St. Lawrence between those lakes.
           During the season of 1844 it was stated, and generaly believed, that a new channel had been discovered through the Cedars Rapids, with a considerable depth of water; and it was supposed, therefore, that no obstruction existed to the passage of vessels, drawing from eight to nine feet water, down all the rapids to Montreal. However, it appeared that this was a mistake; for as the proprietor of the steamboat St. George was endeavouring to take his boat (drawing six feet water) through the newly discovered channel, she struck so heavily in several parts of the Coteau and Cascades Rapids as to make it necessary to run her into the entrance of the Beauharnois Canal, to prevent her from sinking.
           The several works of the enlargement of the Lachine Canal are nearly completed, and are expected to be sufficiently so to allow of the passage of first class vessels, which then will be enabled to run up from Montreal to Toronto and Hamilton; and, through the Welland Canal, to Lakes Erie, St. Clair and Huron. Below Montreal, the St. Lawrence is navigable for first class vessels from the ocean.
           There are many islands in the St. Lawrence, some of large size, and others mere rocks. Of these, the largest above Lake St. Francis, are Gore Island, opposite the townships of Leeds and Landsdowne; and Sheek's Island and Cornwall Island, opposite the townships of Cornwall and Osnabruck. Below Lake St. Francis, there are many islands, the principal of which is the Island of Montreal; but as these are all in the Lower Province, to which the present work does not extend, it is necessary to omit a description of them. The base of the islands in the St. Lawrence is limestone, and they are mostly covered with cedars, and other trees of the pine tribe.
           There have been expended on the improvements of the St. Lawrence up to the 1st of July, 1844, the latest date to which the returns have been published --

Prescott to Dickenson's Landing £13,490 19 4
Cornwall, to the time of opening the canal in June, 1843 57,110 4 2
Cornwall, to repair breaks in the banks, since the above
    period
9,925 16 4
Beauharnois 162,281 19 5
Lachine 45,410 11 2
Expenditure on dredge, outfit, &c., applicable to the fore-
    going in common
4,462 16 3
Lake St. Peter    32,893  19  3
Total . . . £325,576 5 11


The amount of lockage and canals on the St. Lawrence, consists of :
Length
No. of of Canal
Locks MILES
The Galloppes 2 2   
Point Iroquois 1
Rapide Plat 2 4   
Farren's Point 1
Cornwall Canal 7 11½
Beauharnois Canal  9 11¼
Total . . . . 22 32¼
           The banks of the St. Lawrence, above Montreal, are generally rather low, the greater portion of them have been long settled, and bear the aspect of a country which has been long reclaimed from its primeval wildness.
           From its commencement, till it reaches the St. Regis settlement, the St. Lawrence separates Upper Canada; and it forms the southern boundary of the Johnstown and the Eastern districts.
           The principal towns and villages on the St. Lawrence, are Brockville, the district town of the Johnstown District; Cornwall, the district town of the Eastern District; Prescott, in the township of Augusta; Gananoque in Leeds; and Milleroches, in Cornwall.

WILLIAMSBURGH.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Osnabruck; on the north-west by Winchester; on the south-west by Matilda; and on the south-east by the River St. Lawrence. In Williamsburgh 45,340 acres are taken up, 8,301 of which are under cultivation. The township is watered by branches of the Petite Nation River. It contains a fair proportion of good land, and is pretty well settled. There is a small village called "Cooksville" situated in the north-west of the township, six miles from the St. Lawrence; and a settlement called "Mariatown," on the banks of the river. 100 acres of Crown lands are open for sale in Williamsburgh, at 8s. currency per acre. There are one grist and four saw mills in the township. Population in 1842 : 2,941. Ratable property in the township : £38,935.

WILLIAMSTOWN.
A Village in about the centre of the township of Charlottenburgh : situated on the River aux Raisins. It contains about 200 inhabitants. Professions and Trades : One grist and saw mill, four stores, four taverns, two tanneries, one saddler, two blacksmiths, two shoemakers, two tailors.

WINCHESTER.
A Township in the Eastern District : is bounded on the north-east by the township of Finch; on the north-west by Russell and Osgoode; on the south-west by Mountain; and on the south-east by Williamsburgh. In Winchester 17,606 acres are taken up, 2,461 of which are under cultivation. The Petite Nation River runs through the south of the township, and it is watered besides by several branches of the same river. A large proportion of the timber of the township consists of pine. 400 acres of Crown lands are open for sale in Winchester, at 8s. currency per acre. There are one grist and two mills in the township. Population in 1842 : 979. Ratable property in the township : £10,830.
Post Offices in the Eastern District
List of Post Offices Distances in Miles from:
Name of
Office
Name of Town,
Village or
Township
Name of
Postmaster
Toronto Kingston London Cobourg Chatham Goderich Barrie
Alexandria Lochiel, t'p R. Chisholm 323 146 451 251 490 476 383
Cornwall Cornwall, town G.C. Wood 294 117 432 222 498 449 354
Dickenson's Landing Osnabruck, t'p W. Colquhoun 282 105 420 210 486 437 342
Finch Finch, t'p A. Cochburry 302 125 440 230 506 457 362
Lancaster Lancaster, t'p R. McDonald 310 133 448 238 514 466 370
Lochiel Lochiel, t'p D. McLeod 330 153 468 272 534 607 390
Martintown Martintown, v A. McMartin 307 130 445 253 511 630 367
Matilda Matilda, t'p G. Brouse 260 83 398 188 464 415 320
Moulinette Cornwall, t'p T. McCosh 287 110 439 215 505 442 347
Osnabruck Osnabruck, t'p J. Bockus 281 104 419 209 485 436 341
St. Andrews Cornwall, t'p D. McDonell 301 124 440 229 506 426 361
Williamsburg E. Williamsburg, t'p M. Pillar 272 95 389 200 455 427 328
Williamsburg N. Do. W. Bell 275 98 392 203 470 430 343
Williamsburg W. Do. J. Holden 268 91 406 196 472 423 332
Williamstown Charlottenburg, t'p D. McNichol 316 139 454 244 517 471 376
Magistrates who have qualified
in the Eastern District
George S. Jarvis Cornwall, town
Phil. Vankoughnet Do
John McGillivray Charlottenburgh
John Chrysler Finch
Duncan McDonell Charlottenburgh
Guy C. Wood Cornwall, town
A. Blackwood Cornwall, township
Hugh McGillis Charlottenburgh
Peter Shaver Matilda
John McDonald Cornwall, township
John McLennan Lancaster
John Cameron Charlottenburgh
John Archibald Osnabruck
D.A.E. McDonell Cornwall, township
William Clevi Cornwall, town
John McBean Lancaster
Donald Cattanach Kenyon
Alexander McNab Lochiel
Angus Cattanach Lancaster
William Mattice Cornwall, town
Martin Carman Williamsburgh
Hugh McCargar Mountain
Jacob Brouse Matilda
George Markley Williamsburgh
Isaac Keeler Matilda
Robert K. Bullock Osnabruck
D.E. McIntyre Charlottenburgh
John McRae Do
D.A. McDonald Lochiel
Alexander Fraser Do
Alexander M'Lean Cornwall, town
Adam Cockburn Finch
Isaac N. Rose Williamsburgh
Charles J. Fox Winchester
George Laing Do
B.G. French Cornwall, township
Hon. Alex. Fraser Legislative Council